Emerging Methodology of धात्वभ्यास

Emerging Methodology of धात्वभ्यास

धात्वभ्यासस्य उद्वहती पद्धतिः

Some methodology is emerging as the study proceeds, having studied 17 धातु-s thus far (20 July 2013).

  1. Check the word on hand in Apte’s dictionary to see if there is etymology of the word given, bringing forth the धातु thereof OR

  2. Explore which धातु could be implicit in the derivation of word.

    1. Study of धातु ऊह् when exploring the word व्यूढ (in गीता 1-2) stands out as a good example. The exploration brought forth three धातु-s – व्यूह्, ऊह् and वह्

  3. Find grammatical detail of the धातु from धातुपाठसूची

  4. Study various shades of meanings of the धातु given in Apte’s dictionary

    1. In the dictionary one finds

      1. The number of its गण and पद (P=परस्मैपदी, A=आत्मनेपदी, U=उभयपदी) are given, which usually tally with those obtaining in धातुपाठसूची.

        1. If a धातु has inflections in more than one गण-s, the mention of first गण has Roman ‘I’ before the गण and पद

      2. Inflections in present tense, third person singular and its past passive participle are also usually given in brackets, following गण and पद

    2. The various shades of meanings are often supplemented with corroborative quotes from Sanskrit literature.

  5. Obtain various inflections from बृहद्धातुरूपावलि.

  6. Obtain more detailed inflections from Morph-generator tool developed by Department of Sanskrit of University of Hyderabad and available at http://sanskrit.uohyd.ernet.in/scl/skt_gen/generators.html

    1. From the morph-generator one can obtain –

      1. 90 inflections in 10 लकार-s for each गण and पद of a धातु. (180 inflections, if the धातु is उभयपदी)

      2. 90 more inflections in 10 लकार-s for कर्मणि/भावे-प्रयोग of the धातु.

      3. 3 indeclinables कृदव्ययानि (with तुमुल्, णुमुल् क्त्वा suffixes)

      4. 18 कृदन्तप्रातिपदिकानि in पुंलिङ्ग / नपुंसकलिङ्ग and स्त्रीलिङ्ग (with 9 suffixes – तृच्, तव्यत्, यक्, शतृ, ण्वुल्, यत्, क्त, क्तवतु, अनीयर्)

        1. For आत्मनेपदी one gets शानच् instead of शतृ

  7. Inflections obtaining in Apte’s dictionary, बृहद्धातुरूपावलि and Morph-generator do become repetitive. But

    1. In Apte’s dictionary one has meanings and example-quotes

    2. In बृहद्धातुरूपावलि one gets

      1. inflections in

        1. कर्मणि/भावे change of voice

        2. causative (णिचि = प्रयोजके),

        3. desiderative (सनि = इच्छार्थके),

        4. frequentatives (यङि and

        5. यङ्लुकि) are also detailed.

      2. कृदन्ताः under कृत्सु

      3. specific words obtaining by prefixes उपसर्ग-s affixed to the धातु.

      4. footnotes detailing grammar of specific inflections, when it is noteworthy.

  8. Apart from the word, which first prompted the study of the धातु, there will be many more words to motivate revisiting the धातु.

    1. The post on धातुः युध् is a good example of it. It was prompted by the word युयुत्सवः but words दुर्योधनः, युधि, युयुधानः, युधानः, युधिष्ठिरः are also from धातुः युध्

    2. Here again, the detail योधनं [युध्-भावे-ल्युट्]  comes forth when studying दुर्योधनः. This suffix ल्युट् is not among nine suffixes covered by morph-generator.

    English term for धातु is ‘verbal root’. I think धातु is truly the seed. And one has thousands of words emanating from it.

    As संत तुकाराम rightlysaid, एका बीजापोटी | फळे रसाळ गोमटी || A tree grows from a seed and bears fruits, which have more seeds in them ! For example, गत is कर्मणि-भूतकालवाचक विशेषणम् from धातुः गम्. From गत one has 72 inflections by लिङ्ग-विभक्ति-वचन And one has many shoots and offshoots from गत such as आगत प्रगत स्वागत etc.

Study FROM the fundamental (also study OF the fundamentals) called as बीजाभ्यास is always an absorbing study and possibly, the best approach for any study. In संस्कृत-study धात्वभ्यास should prove to be बीजाभ्यास. It becomes all the more charming, when धात्वभ्यास is prompted by study of गीता !