धातुः प्रथ्

In अथ प्रथमोऽध्यायः there is the पदं प्रथमः .

I suspected that this पदं “प्रथम:” would also have a धातु in its etymology. And lo ! the word प्रथम is detailed in Apte’s Practical Sanskrit Dictionary as below –


This, in a way, endorses my urge to get into this study of verbal roots implicit in words in गीता. Hence this गीतायाः धात्वभ्यासः !!



I get to see the special note that पुंल्लिङ्ग, प्रथमा-विभक्ति, बहुवचनम् of प्रथम can optionally be प्रथमे, which is similar to that of a सर्वनाम such as सर्व (सर्व → सर्वे). It seems that ऋषि-s thought it fit to give this particular ordinal adjective प्रथम some special treatment like that of a सर्वनाम at the least at पुंल्लिङ्ग, प्रथमा-विभक्ति, बहुवचनम् !



Since etymology of the word प्रथम is given as प्रथ् च्, it is derived from धातुः प्रथ्

Considering the meanings “eminent, matchless” of the word प्रथम it would be interesting to look at more words in the dictionary, which also seem to be deriving from धातुः प्रथ्



Now on to धातुः प्रथ्

(1) धातुपाठे –

प्रथ् | भ्वा० सेट् आ० | प्रथ(म्)प्रख्याने १. ८६९ ||
प्रथ् | चु० सेट् उ० (१. ३. ७४)| प्रथ प्रख्याने १०. २७ ||

(2) बृहद्धातुरूपावल्याम् –




(3) आपटे-महाभागस्य शब्दकोषे –







धातुः धृ

In धृतराष्ट्र उवाच the first word धृतराष्ट्रः is a compound word having two पद-s धृत and राष्ट्र. Etymology of each has a derivation from धातु धृ and राज् respectively. We shall study these one by one. First the पद धृत.


In Apte’s Practical dictionary, धृत is detailed as follows –




As can be seen, the word धृतराष्ट्र is itself detailed above as a compound of धृत and राष्ट्र

The etymology given for धृत is धृ कर्मणि क्त. So, धृत is past passive participle of धातुः धृ

On to धातुः धृ




धातुपाठे –

धृ | भ्वा० अनिट् आ० | धृङ् अवध्वंसने १. १११५ ||
धृ | भ्वा० अनिट् उ० | धृञ् धारणे १. १०४७ ||
धृ | तु० अनिट् आ० | धृङ् अवस्थाने ६. १४८ ||

बृहद्धातुरूपावल्याम् –



As can be noted धातुः धृ is detailed at two places, Sr. Nos. 262 and 521


There is a footnote for ध्रियते giving an example sentence as “.. ध्रियते यावदेकोऽपि रिपुस्तावत्कुतः सुखम् | ..”


Actually morphology of different inflections of many धातु-s has been faciliteted by computer-programming at http://tdil-dc.in/san/skt_gen/generators.html# Unfortunately the धातु is listed in the drop-down menu, both as धृञ् धारणे and धृङ् अवध्वंसने

I could not get the inflections for either of these.


Among more words derived from धातुः धृ, in the dictionary, one finds interesting details for the word धृतिः as follows.




I think ‘forbearance’ can be a good translation of धृतिः



धातुः गै

In अथ श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता the पदं at the end is गीता


In Apte’s dictionary



Obviously गीता is from धातुः गै

Actually this is feminine of गीत, which is detailed separately as below.



There are many related words. गीतकम्  = a song is explained above. Another word गीति is detailed as below.



धातुपाठसूच्याम्  –

गै – भ्वादि अनिट् प. | गै शब्दे (गै = ) | १-१०६५

बृहद्धातुरूपावल्याम् –


(1) धातुसूचीत्यस्मिन् परिशिष्टे  →


(2) ग्रन्थे →

(3) पृष्ठतले स्पष्टीकरणानि →



As can be seen, the धातु is गै. But different inflections have

  • गा as in गायति गातुम्

  • गी as in गीतम् गीता गीत्वा

  • गे as in गेयम्

But all these variations seem to be logical for the concerned inflections and sound good to the ear ! That in fact seems to be the test for the correctness of a word – “it should sound good to the ear.”


आपटे-महाभागस्य शब्दकोषे



In श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता the word गीता is feminine, though, as a poetic composition worthy of being sung, it could as well be गीतम्.

Basically गीतम् or गीता are विशेषणात्मक adjectival. This is brought out very clearly at the closing declaration at the end of every chapter – “ॐ तत्सत् इति श्रीमद्भगवद्गीतासु उपनिषत्सु …“ Every chapter is to be regarded as उपनिषत्. The word उपनिषत् is feminine. Hence the adjective गीता is also feminine. All chapters together, all उपनिषद-s together make a singular eminent composition, which has become known as “गीता”.


As explained in Apte’s dictionary, there are many other  गीता-s also. All गीता-s are dialogues or monologues, speeches. The Sanskrit noun for speech is वाक्. This noun also is feminine.


So गीता वाक् =

  • speech, which is sung,

  • speech, which can be sung or

  • speech, which should be sung गीता सुगीता कर्तव्या or

  • speech, which is as pleasing as music



धातुः भज्

In अथ श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता the पदं भगवत् is derived with प्रत्यय वत् affixed to noun भग.

This is clear from the meanings of भग and भगवत् in Apte’s dictionary, though the two words are detailed separately there.


As is clear from the etymology of भग

  1. भज्-घ

  2. the धातुः is भज्

  3. grammatical explanation of the suffix घ –

    1. in Abhyankar’s dictionary of Sanskrit grammar, घ is explained as कृत्-affix अ , when the word to which it is applied becomes a proper noun, i.e. noun in a specific sense or a technical term

    2. For this explanation, reference is given of पुंसि संज्ञायां घः प्रायेण॥ (पा. सू. ३।३।११८) and खनो घ च (पा. सू. ३।३।१२५)

    3. at http://sanskritdocuments.org/learning_tools/sarvanisutrani/3.3.118.htm पा. सू. ३।३।११८ is explained as धातोः घः प्रत्ययो भवति समुदायेन चेत् संज्ञा गम्यते । and

    4. at http://sanskritdocuments.org/learning_tools/sarvanisutrani/3.3.125.htm पा. सू. ३।३।१२५ is explained as खनो। घित्ककरणमिति। “आखन”इत्यादौ “चजो”रिति कुत्वस्य प्रसक्त्यभावादिति भावः। भगः। पदमिति।

    5. All in all, on affixing घ i.e. अ to धातुः भज्, firstly भज् becomes भग् and then we get the masculine proper noun भग as भग् + अ = भग

Now, Apte’s dictionary gives as many as 22 shades of meaning for the word भगः !!

With suffix वत्  भग+वत् = भगवत् .

The suffix वत् is explained in Abhyankar’s “Dictionary of Sanskrit Grammar” as “substitute of मत् of मतुप्”, adding also “..See मतुप्”

Now, मतुप् is explained as –

  1. तद्धित-प्रत्ययः मत् which

  2. by मादुपधायाश्च मतोर्वोऽयवादिभ्यः । (पा. सू. ८।२।९) in some cases मत् becomes वत्

  3. Basically मत् or वत् are suffixes, applied to any noun or substantive in the sense of “who possesses that” or “which contains it”

  4. Note, Substantive = A word that names or refers to a person, place, thing, or idea

So, भगवत् means one, who possesses भग (with most of its 22 shades of meanings !)

Now on to धातुः भज् –

धातुपाठे –

  1. भ्वा. अनिट् उ. । भज सेवायाम् १. ११५३

  2. चु. सेट् उ. । भज विश्राणने १० . २५९

बृहद्धातुरूपावल्याम् धातुः भज् is detailed as –

1) भज सेवायाम्


2) भज विश्राणने । सकर्मकः । भाजयति-ते । ९ (लुङ्-लकारे) अबीभषत्-त

In Apte’s dictionary –


Having mentioned earlier that there are 22 meanings given for the noun भग for धातुः भज् also there are 20 meanings !

Some of the meanings of भज् and भग are also close enough to the meanings of some other धातु-s, viz. भा, भाज् and भास्

In धातुपाठ –

भा – अदादि अनिट् प. | भा दीप्तौ (भा = to shine) | 2-46

भग =

    • one of the twelve forms of sun

    • glory

    • final beatitude

भाज् – चुरादि सेट् उ. | भाज पृथक्कर्मणि (भाज् = to separate, to divide) | 10-428

भाग is a word having derivations both from भज् and भाज्

It is clearly mentioned “… भाजयति-ते regarded by some as प्रयोजक of भज् ..”

भास् – भ्वादि सेट् आ. | भासृ दीप्तौ (भास् = to shine) | 1-711

However for this study, having been taken up in the context of the word भगवत्, having noted etymology of भग as भज्-घ, the focus is on धातुः भज् only.


धातु श्रि

In अथ श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता when exploring etymology of the पदम् श्रीमत् one gets to note in धातुपाठ three धातु-s श्रि श्री श्रै
which could be relevant.

A study of these धातु-s should bring forth which one(s) is (are) most appropriate.

In धातुपाठ

In Apte’s dictionary

श्रि भ्वादि (1) सेट् उ. | श्रिञ् सेवायाम् |

श्रि 1 u (श्रयति-ते, श्रित …)

श्री क्र्यादि (9) अनिट् उ. | श्रीञ् पाके |

श्री 9 U (श्रीणाति, श्रीणीते)

श्रै भ्वादि (1) अनिट् प. | श्रै पाके |

श्रै 1 P (श्रायति)

In Apte’s Practical Sanskrit dictionary, the feminine noun श्री is detailed as

श्री f [ श्री-क्विप् नि. Un. 2. 57 ]

From this it seems that श्री  क्र्यादि (9) अनिट् उ. | श्रीञ् पाके | is possibly the appropriate धातु.

Note, Un. 2.57 refers to उणादिसूत्रेषु 2-57

However in a commentary उणादिवृत्तिः the सूत्र-क्रमाङ्क is 2-58 having mention of श्रि

2-58 क्विप् वचिप्रच्छिश्रिस्रुद्रुप्रुज्वां दीर्घोऽसंप्रसारणम्  च |

The commentary further details the धातु only as श्रिञ् सेवायाम् | and adds a clear mention – एतेभ्यो धातुभ्यः क्विप्-प्रत्ययो भवति, धातूनां च दीर्घो जायतेऽसंप्रसारणम्  च |

Accordingly, श्रि becomes श्री.

In continuation, in the commentary, various meanings of श्री are detailed as follows –

श्रीः = लक्ष्मी, ईश्वर-रचना, सृष्टिः, शोभा, राजसत्ता, प्रतिष्ठा, सौन्दर्यम्, वर्णः, रूपम्, विष्णुपत्नी, गुणः, श्रेष्ठता, बुद्धिः, तरुः, कमलम्, अतिमानवशक्तिः, धर्मार्थकामत्रयम्, रामठम्, बिल्ववृक्षः

From these, the meanings शोभा, प्रतिष्ठा, सौन्दर्यम्, वर्णः, रूपम्, गुणः, श्रेष्ठता, बुद्धिः, are relevant for the word श्रीमत् .

So, we should consider श्रि भ्वादि (1) सेट् उ. | श्रिञ् सेवायाम् | from धातुपाठ i.e. श्रि 1 u (श्रयति-ते, श्रित …) in Apte’s dictionary as the relevant धातु.

In Apte’s dictionary many more forms are given in continuation of श्रयति-ते, श्रित … The forms given are –

  • श्रयति-ते, present tense, लटि  third person प्रथम-पुरुषे  singular एकवचने

  • शिश्राय-शिश्रिये – लिटि (परोक्षभूते)

  • अशिश्रियत्-ते – लङ्-लकारे (अनद्यतनभूते)

  • श्रयिष्यति-ते – लृटि (द्वितीयभविष्ये)

  • श्रयितुम् – तुमन्तम्

  • श्रित – ppp. क्त-कृदन्तम् (कर्मणि-भूतकालवाचकं विशेषणम्)

  • श्राययति-ते – णिचि (प्रयोजके)

  • शिश्रीषति-ते – सनि (पुनःपुनःकरणे)

    • अथवा शिश्रयिषति-ते – सनि (पुनःपुनःकरणे)

Details in बृहद्धातुरूपावलिः –


In बृहद्धातुरूपावलिः there are footnotes giving special explanations of derivations of some forms.

As can be seen,

  • some words derived from श्रि are also detailed, viz. श्रीः, श्रेणिः, श्मश्रु

  • words with some prefixes are also detailed. viz. आश्रयति, प्रश्रयति, उच्छ्र्यति

I have noted earlier various meanings of श्रीः obtaining in उणादिवृत्तिः

श्रीमत् adjective is तद्धित (derived from noun) obtained by affixing तद्धित-प्रत्यय मत् to the noun श्री. The तद्धित-प्रत्यय मत् lends a meaning “having”. So श्रीमत् means having श्री.


धातुः ‘अय्’

In अथ प्रथमोऽध्यायः the word अध्यायः has the संधि-विच्छेदः अधि + आ + अयः and is derived from the धातुः ‘अय्’

धातुः ‘अय्’

(A) धातुपाठसूच्याम् –

अय् – भ्वा. सेट् आ. | अय – [गतौ] १. ५४६

अय् – भ्वा. सेट् उ. | (अय  गतौ) १. १०३१

(B) आपटे-महाभागस्य शब्दकोषे – detailed on page 48 of ‘Student’s Concise’ version of Apte’s dictionary

अय् – 1 A. (Sometimes P. also, especially with उत्)

(अयते – लटि प्र. पु. ए. व.

अयाञ्चक्रे –  प्र. पु. ए. व.

अयितुम् – तुमन्तम्

अयित – (क्त-कृदन्तम्) कर्मणि-भूतकालवाचकं विशेषणम्

– अय् = To go

With उपसर्ग-s

(1) अंतर् + अय् = To interpose, to intervene दुर्दरक उपसृत्यांतरयति (मालविकाग्निमित्रे 2)

(2) अभ्युद् + अय् =

  1. to rise (as the sun, moon, etc.)

  2. to thrive, prosper

(3) उत् + अय् =

  1. to rise (as the sun, moon, etc.) उदयति हि शशांकः कामिणीगंडपाण्डुः (मालविकाग्निमित्रे 1-57)

  2. to appear, to come in sight मुहूर्तो यज्ञियः प्राप्तञ्चोदयंतोह याजकाः (महाभारतम्)

  3. to spring, to arise, to originate, to proceed from तदोदयेदन्यवधूनिषेधः (नैषधचरिते 3-92)

(4) परा + अय् (रा changes to ला, hence पलायते)

  • to run away, to retreat, to fly away म्रुगात् सिंहः पलायते

(C) In बृहद्धातुरूपावलिः one gets

  1. रूपाणि in the 10 लकार-s in the following order – (1) लट् (2) लोट् (3) लङ् (4) विधिलिङ् (5) लिट् (6) लुट् (7) लृट् (8) आशीर्लिङ् (9) लुङ् (10) लृङ्  Primarily the रूपाणि given are for प्र. पु. ए. व.

  2. One also gets रूपाणि with other variants, viz. भावकर्मणी, हेतुमण्णिजन्ताः, सन्नन्ताः यङ्-अन्ताः यङ्लुगन्ताः

    1. भावकर्मणी denotes the change of voice depending upon the verb being transitive or intransitive.

      1. On change of voice also there will be रूपाणि in the 10 लकार-s

    2. हेतुमण्णिजन्ताः connotes two types of variants

      1. हेतुमत् = इच्छार्थक desiderative there will be रूपाणि in the 10 लकार-s.

      2. णिच् = प्रयोजक causative

        1. There can be change of voice also of the causatives and रूपाणि in the 10 लकार-s after change of voice


  1. In बृहद्धातुरूपावलिः one also gets the verbal derivatives – कृदन्तानि – These also in an order of suffixes प्रत्ययाः – (a) तव्यत् (b) अनीयर् (c) यत् (d) क्त (e) शतृ (परस्मैपदी) / शानच् (आत्मनेपदी) (f) तुम् (g) क्त्वा (अनुपसर्ग) / ल्यप् (उपसर्गसहित)




(D) Words which have their etymology related to the verbal root अय्.

(D-1) अयः –

  1. going, moving (mostly in compounds, as in अस्तमयः i.e. अस्तं यः )

  2. good actions of former birth

  3. good fortune, good luck शुद्धपार्ष्णिरयान्वितः (रघुवंशे 4-26)

  4. A die, cube to play with

  5. By compounding with अन्वित, अयवत् – सुलभेः सदा नयवताऽयवता (किरातार्जुनीये 5-20)


(D-2) अयनम् –

  1. going, moving, walking as in रामायणम्

  2. walk, path, way, road अगस्त्यचिन्हादयनात् (रघुवंशे 16-44)

  3. a place, a sight, abode

  4. a way of entrance, an entrance (to an army of troops or व्यूह) अयनेषु च सर्वेषु यथाभागमवस्थिताः (गीता 1-11)

  5. Sun’s passage north and south of equator उत्तरायणम् दक्षिणायनम्

  6. The equinoctical and solstitial points उत्तरायणम् = summer solstice दक्षिणायनम् = winter solstice

  7. Final emancipation नान्यः पन्था विद्यतेयनाय (श्वेताश्वेतरोपनिषत्)

  8. Compounds with अयन –

    1. अयनकालः interval between solstices

    2. अयनसुप्तम्  ecliptic

There would be many many words with etymological derivation from धातुः ‘अय्’. All those will not be found in the dictionary at one place or nearby to अय्. They would be listed in their alphabetical position.


(D-3) अव्यय –

  1. This is detailed on page 64 of Student’s Concise version of Apte’s dictionary.

    1. विशेषणम्

      • Not liable to change, imperishable, immutable वेदाविनाशिनं नित्यं य एनमजमव्ययम् (गीता 2-21)

      • eternal, everlasting अश्वत्थं प्राहुरव्ययम् (गीता 15-1)

      • Unexpended, unwasted

      • Economical

    2. अव्ययः (पुं. नाम)

      • Name of Vishnu

      • Name of Shiva

    3. अव्ययम् (नपुं. नाम)

      • ब्रह्मन्

      • In grammar, an indeclinable particle सदृशं त्रिषु लिङ्गेषु | सर्वासु च विभक्तिषु | वचनेषु च सर्वेषु | यन्न व्येति तदव्ययम् ||

    4. In compounds

      • अव्ययात्मन् = of an imperishable or eternal nature.

        1. अव्ययात्मा – having eternal spirit सन्नव्ययात्मा भूतानामीश्वरोऽपि सन् (गीता 4-6)

      • अव्ययवर्गः – the class of indeclinable words

  2. Actually अव्यय the opposite of व्यय, the meaning as ‘opposite’ is obtained by the prefix अ

  3. On page 538  one finds detailing of

    1. (D-4) व्यय् (वि + अय्) धातुः

      • As a verbal root it is recognized in धातुपाठसूची as follows –

      • व्यय (व्यय्)| चु० सेट् उ० (१. ३. ७४)| व्यय वित्तसमुत्सर्गे १०. ४७८ ||
        व्यय् | भ्वा० सेट् उ० | व्यय गतौ १. १०२४ ||
        व्यय् | चु० सेट् उ० (१. ३. ७४)| व्यय- [क्षेपे [चत्येके]]१०. १३७ ||


    1. (D-5) व्यय विशेषणम् – Liable to change, mutable, perishable


    1. (D-6) व्ययः (पुं. नाम) –


      • Loss, disappearance, destruction

      • cost, sacrifice

2) Hindrance, obstacle

3) Decay, decline, overthrow, downfall

4) Expenditure, expenses, outlay, spending

5) Extravagance, prodigality

    1. अव्ययम् (नपुं. नाम) = indeclinable (in grammar)

धातुः “नम्”

धातुः “नम्”

After अथ श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता the next sentence is ॐ श्रीपरमात्मने नमः |

Here we have नमः derived from धातु “नम्”

Study of “नम्”

I have in mind a pattern for study of every धातु.

There is already a preliminary pattern used in alphabetical listing of धातु-s at http://sanskritdocuments.org/all_sa/dhatupathaindex_sa.html

The listing there is called as an Index धातुपाठसूची based on धातुपाठ by पाणिनी.

The सूची lists for each धातु

1) गण

2) सेट्, अनिट्, or वेट्

(Note, सेट्,अनिट् or वेट् refer to patterns of inflections,
i.e. सेट् = स-इट् with इट्, अनिट् = अन्-इट् without इट्, or वेट् = वा-इट्
where इट् is optional.)

3) पद

4) In धातुपाठ by पाणिनी the above three are summarily detailed along with a cryptic phrase for the meaning of the धातु.

5) Serial number in गण-wise listing in धातुपाठ

for धातु नम् the detail given is –

नम् | – नमामनुपसर्गाद्वा [मित्]१. ९४४ ||
नम् | भ्वा० अनिट् प० | णम प्रह्वत्वे शब्दे च १. ११३६ ||

Here भ्वा० stands for भ्वादि which is पाणिनी’s name for प्रथम गण.

6) Apte’s dictionary, presents a good study of धातु again by a pattern.
For नम् it reads –
नम् 1 P. sometimes A (नमति-ते; नत) Here नमति-ते are परस्मैपदी and आत्मनेपदी forms
of नम् in present tense, third person, singular.
नत is past passive participle
7) Apte’s dictionary also gives pattern of causative प्रयोजक-forms as नमयति-ते or
नामयति-ते. Note, when there is a preposition, नमयति only.
8) Desiderative निनंसति meaning नमितुं इच्छति
9) Then the dictionary gives various shades of meaning of the धातु.

  1. To bow to, to make obeisance to, to salute (as a mark of respect) द्वितीया or चतुर्थी विभक्ति of the person to whom obeisance is made. इयं नमति वः सर्वान् त्रिलोचनवधूरीति (कुमारसंभव 6.89)

  2. To submit or subject oneself, to bow down अशक्तः संधिमान् नमेत् (कामंदकिनीतिसार 8.55)

  3. To bend, sink, go down अनंसीद्भूर्भरेणास्य (भट्टिकाव्य 15.25)

  4. To stoop, be inclined

  5. To be bent or curved

  6. To sound

10) Then the dictionary gives meanings with different prefixes उपसर्ग-s.

10-1 अभि + उत् + नम् = अभ्युन्नम् = To rise, to go up

10-2 अव+नम् = (a) To bend or bow down (b) To bend oneself, to hang down
त्वय्यादातुं जलमवनते शार्ङ्गिणः कृष्णचौरे (मेघदूतम् 46)

10-3 उत् + नम् = (a) to rise, to appear, to spring up उन्नम्योन्नम्य लीयन्ते दरिद्राणां
मनोरथाः (पञ्चतन्त्र 2-91) (b) to rise, to go up, to ascend
उन्नमति नमति वर्षति गर्जति मेघः (मृच्छकटिकम् 5-26)
Causative प्रयोजकम् of उन्नम् = to raise, to erect
10-4 उप + नम् = (a) to come to, to approach, to arrive (b) to befall,
to fall to the lot of, to happen, to occur कस्यात्यन्तं सुखमुपनतं
दुःखमेकान्ततो वा (मेघदूतम् 109) (c) to present, to offer, to give
परलोकोपनतं जलाञ्जलिः
10-5 परिणम् –

  • (a) to bend (as an elephant striking with his tusks)

  वप्रक्रीडापरिणतगजप्रेक्षणीयं ददर्श (मेघदूतम् 2)

  • (b) to be inclined लज्जापरिणतैः वदनकमलैः (भट्टिकाव्यम्)

  • (c) to be transformed, to become changed लताभावेन परिणतमस्या रूपम्

  (विक्रमोर्वशीयम् 4)

  • (d) to mature, to ripen परिणतप्रज्ञस्य वाणी

  • (e) to become aged, to decay परिणतशरच्चन्द्रिकासु क्षपासु (मेघदूतम् 110)

  • (f) to set, to decline (as the sun) परिणतो दिवसः (कादंबरी 47)

  • (g) to be digested ग्रस्तं परिणमेच्च यत् (महाभारतम्)

10-6 प्रणम् = to make a low obeisance

  • साष्टाङ्गं प्रणम् = to prostrate with eight points of the body touching the ground

  • दण्डवत् प्रणम्= to bow throwing oneself down like a stick lying horizontal

10-7 विनम् = to bend oneself, to stoop विनमन्ति चास्य तरवः प्रचये (किरातार्जुनीयम् 6-34) See विनत

10-8 विपरिणम् = to undergo a change for the worse

10-9 संनम् =

  • To stoop, to incline संनताङ्गी (कुमारसंभवम् 1-34)

  • To submit to, to subject oneself to संनमतामरीणाम् (रघुवंशम् 18-34)

11 Words derived from नम्

11-1 Adverbials कृदन्ताव्ययानि

  • त्वान्त – नत्वा

  • ल्यबन्त – प्रणम्य e.g. प्रणम्य शिरसा देवं कृताञ्जलिरभाषत (गीता 11-14) also तस्मात्प्रणम्य प्रणिधाय कायं (गीता 11-44)

  • तुमन्त – नमितुम्

11-2 Adjectives कृदन्तविशेषणानि

  • Past passive कर्मणिभूतकालवाचक (क्त-प्रत्ययेन) – नत, नता

  • Past Active कर्तरिभूतकालवाचक (क्तवतु-प्रत्ययेन) – नतवत्, नतवती

  • Gerund वर्तमानकालवाचक (शतृ-प्रत्ययेन) – नमन्, नमन्ती

  • Passive Gerund (शानच्-प्रत्ययेन) – नम्यमान, नम्यमाना (one being bowed to)

  • Mood-related passive (य-तव्य-अनीय-प्रत्ययैः) – नम्य, नन्तव्य, नमनीय (should be bowed to, worthy of being bowed to)

11-3 नमस् नमः

  • In grammar, an indeclinable, necessarily Dative चतुर्थी of one being bowed to e.g. श्रीपरमात्मने नमः

  • often used as a noun e.g. नमांसि सर्वेभ्यः

  • Used also as a prefix with the verb कृ – e.g. नमस्-कृ, नमस्कार

  • But in नमस्कृत्वा भूय एवाह कृष्णम् (गीता 11-35) possibly it is only संधि of नमस् + कृत्वा

  • If it was a prefix उपसर्ग it should have been a ल्यबन्त as नमस्कृत्य

    • We come across this in the first श्लोक of महाभारतम् – नारायणं नमस्कृत्य नरं चैव नरोत्तमम् | देवीं सरस्वतीं व्यासं ततो जयमुदीरयेत् ||

  • One finds नमस् नमः in other verses also नमो नमस्तेस्तु सहस्रकृत्वा पुनश्च भूयोऽपि नमो नमस्ते (गीता 11-39)

12 In बृहद्धातुरूपावलिः the धातु is listed at No. 300 among भ्वा. and is listed as णम = प्रह्वत्वे | अकर्म. | सेट् | परस्मै.

12-1 Neither in Apte’s dictionary nor in धातुपाठ there is any clear mention that it is an intransitive verb अकर्म.

It is a subtle thought that the entity to whom the obeisance is being paid is not an ‘object’. It is the receiver of the obeisance.

Being intransitive, its change of voice will be भावे-प्रयोग not कर्मणि-प्रयोग. The importance is to the भाव sentiment with which one offers the obeisance. It is not a mere कर्म bodily action.

This is a very telling example showing how संस्कृति culture is built up in the language संस्कृत and how language can lay cultural foundation for social behaviour !

12-2 One gets प्र. पु. ए. व. रूपाणि in the 10 लकार-s in the following order – (1) लट् – नमति* (*A footnote gives an explanation णो नः meaning, that although the धातु is णम, for its रूपाणि ण becomes न. Forms in other लकार-s are (2) लोट् – नमतु (3) लङ् – अनमत् (4) विधिलिङ् – नमेत

The other forms in (5) लिट् i.e. unseen past परोक्षभूत (6) लुट् – भविष्यत्काल (7) लृट् – भविष्यत्काल (8) आशीर्लिङ् (9) लुङ् – सामान्यभूतकाल (10) लृङ् – द्वितीयभविष्य  are captured in the following image.


In the above image, one sees all 9 forms of (5) लिट्-लकार.  This must be because of the exceptional forms. Totally there are 7 foot-notes as follows –


The Note #6 वा ल्यपि is interesting. The foot-note details some technicalities. But basically प्रणत्य is also an alternative for प्रणम्य .



श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता starts with this word अथ.

अथ is an invocation with an aura of auspiciousness implicit in it.

There is a श्लोक, explaining why this word is considered as sacred and auspicious.

ॐकारश्चाथशब्दश्च द्वावेतौ ब्रह्मणः पुरा |
कण्ठं भित्त्वा विनिर्यातौ तस्मान्माङ्गलिकावुभौ ||
Meaning is – ॐ and अथ were the two (sounds or words) which emerged from the throat of Brahma (first and foremost, when Brahma embarked upon creating the cosmos). Hence both are sacred.

अथ श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता means “May here begin the Geetaa”

So, although grammatically अथ is an indeclinable, it has implicit in it the function of a verb “May here begin”.

It is hence appropriate to embark on this study with this study of अथ, both as an auspicious invocation and also as a good beginning of a study of श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता based on study of verbal roots.

The concept of this study is detailed on the “About” page. It is sort of an “Introduction”. It would be good for readers to read the “About” page.